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Philosophy Texts

Edited Philosophy Collections

Harvey Brown

Rudolf Carnap

Robert DiSalle

John Earman

Bas van Fraassen

Steven French

Michael Friedman

William Harper

Carl Hempel

Christiaan Huygens

Immanuel Kant

Thomas Kuhn

Andrew Janiak

Imré Lakatos

Robert Nozick

Ernst Mach

Gottfried Leibniz

Charles Sanders Peirce

Karl Popper

Hilary Putnam

Frank Ramsey

Hans Reichenbach

Bertrand Russell

Lawrence Sklar

George Smith

Howard Stein

Patrick Suppes

Alfred Tarski

Roberto Torretti

Steve Martin

Edited Philosophy Collections

- R. Batterman (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics, 2013
- J. Butterfield and J. Earman (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Physics, Parts A and B, Elsevier, 2007
- C. Callender and N. Huggett (eds.), Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale: Contemporary Theories in Quantum Gravity, Cambridge University Press, 2001
- I. Cohen and G. Smith (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Newton, Cambridge University Press, 2004
- D. Dieks (ed.), The Ontology of Spacetime, Elsevier, 2006
- A. Janiak and E. Schliesser (eds.), Interpreting Newton: Critical Essays, Cambridge University Press, 2013
- D. Lehmkuhl, G. Schiemann, and E. Scholz (eds.), Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories, Springer, 2017
- M. Morgan and M. Morrison (eds.), Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science, Cambridge University Press, 1999
- S. Saunders and H. Brown (eds.), The Philosophy of Vacuum, Oxford University Press, 1991

Harvey Brown

- Physical Relativity: Space-Time Structure from a Dynamical Perspective, Clarendon Press, 2005

Rudolf Carnap

- “Testability and Meaning” (Philosophy of Science 1936)
- “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology” (Supplement A in his Meaning and Necessity, second ed.)
- “The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts” (in Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1, 1956)
- “Notes on Semantics”, Philosophia, 2(1972, April, 1):3–54 (lecture notes from Carnap's seminar at UCLA in the late 1960s, collected and published posthumously)

Robert DiSalle

- Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics from Newton to Einstein Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2006

John Earman

- Foundations of Space-Time Theories, Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. vii, 1977 (ed. with C. Glymour and J. Stachel)
- A Primer on Determinism
- World Enough and Space-Time: Absolute versus Relational Theories of Space and Time

Bas van Fraassen

- The Scientific Image
- Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective (Oxford University Press, 2008)

Steven French

- Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning, with N. da Costa, Oxford University Press, 2003

Michael Friedman

- Foundations of Space-Time Theories: Relativistic Physics and Philosophy of Science, Princeton University Press, 1983
- The Dynamics of Reason, CSLI Publications, 2001

William Harper

- “Kant on the A Priori and Material Necessity” (in Kant's Philosophy of Physical Science, ed. R. Butts, 1986)
- “Kant on Space, Empirical Realism and the Foundations of Geometry” (in Kant's Philosophy of Mathematics, ed. C. Posy, 1992)
- “Kant, Riemann and Reichenbach on Space and Geometry” (in Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, ed. H. Robinson, 1995)

Carl Hempel

- The Philosophy of Carl G. Hempel: Studies in Science, Explanation and Rationality, Oxford University Press, 2001 (ed. J. Fetzer)

Christiaan Huygens

- On Centrifugal Force, trans. M. S. Mahoney (from original URL: https://www.princeton.edu/~hos/mike/texts/huygens/centriforce/huyforce.htm
- The Pendulum Clock, Part 4: On the Center of Oscillation, trans. M. S. Mahoney (from original URL: http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/mike/texts/huygens/centosc/huyosc.htm
- On the Motion of Bodies Resulting from Impact, trans. M. S. Mahoney (from original URL: http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/Mahoney/texts/huygens/impact/huyimpct.html

Immanuel Kant

- Critique of Pure Reason (Translated and edited by N. Kemp Smith)
- Critique of Pure Reason (Translated and edited by P. Guyer and A. Wood, part of the The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant)
- Prolegemona to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science (Translated by G. Hatfield, part of the The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant)
- Theoretical Philosophy after 1781 (Edited by H. Allen and P. Heath, translated by G. Hatfield, M. Friedman, H. Allen and P. Heath, part of the The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant)

Thomas Kuhn

- The Function of Dogma in Scientific Research, in A. Crombie (Ed.), Scientific Change, London: Basic Books, pp. 347–369. Proceedings of the Symposium on the History of Science, University of Oxford, 9–15 July 1961.

Andrew Janiak

- Newton As Philosopher, Cambridge University Press, 2008

Imré Lakatos

- The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1, eds. J. Worrall and G. Currie, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Robert Nozick

- Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World, Harvard University Press, 2001

Ernst Mach

- Space and Geometry in the Light of Physiological, Psychological and Physical Inquiry, trans. T. McCormack, Open Court Publishing Co., 1943

Gottfried Leibniz

Charles Sanders Peirce

- “The Doctrine of Necessity Examined”
- Reasoning and the Logic of Things (1 page excerpt from the chapter “Causation and Force”)

Karl Popper

- The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Routledge Classics, 2002.

Hilary Putnam

- “Realism and Reason”, presidential address delivered before the Seventy-Third Annual Eastern Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Boston, MA, Dec 29, 1976
- Mathematics, Matter and Method: Philosophical Papers, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, 1979

Frank Ramsey

- The Foundations of Mathematics and Other Logical Essays, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1931

Hans Reichenbach

- The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965, trans. M. Reichenbach. (out of print)
- The Philosophy of Space & Time, New York: Dover Publications, 1958, trans. M. Reichenbach and J. Freund
- The Direction of Time, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956, ed. and trans. M. Reichenbach

Bertrand Russell

Lawrence Sklar

- Space, Time and Spacetime
- Physics and Chance: Philosophical Issues in the Foundations of Statistical Mechanics, Cambridge university Press, 1993

George Smith

- “Closing the Loop“, in Newton and Empiricism, eds. Z. Biener and E. Schliesser, Oxford University Press, 2014, ch. 10, pp. 262–351

Howard Stein

- “Bibliography”
- “On Metaphysics and Method in Newton” (unpublished manuscript)
- “Nevvtonus ab quibusdam nævibus vindicatus” (unpublished manuscript)
- “Further Considerations on Newton's Method” (unpublished manuscript)
- “Newton: Philosophy of Inquiry and Metaphysics of Nature” (unpublished manuscript)
- “How Does Physics Bear upon Metaphysics; and Why Did Plato Hold That Philosophy Cannot Be Written Down?” (unpublished manuscript)
- “Physics and Philosophy Meet: the Strange Case of Poincaré” (unpublished manuscript)
- “Newtonian Space-Time”, Texas Quarterly 10(1967):174–200.
- “On the Notion of Field in Newton, Maxwell, and Beyond” in R. Stuewer (ed.), Historical and Philosophical Perspective of Science (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1970), pp. 264–287.
- “Some Philosophical Prehistory of General Relativity”, in J. Earman, C. Glymour, and J. Stachel (eds.), Foundations of Space-Time Theories (Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. VIII), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977, 3–49.
- “ ‘Subtler Forms of Matter’ in the Period Following Maxwell”, in G. Cantor and M. Hodge (eds.), Conceptions of Ether: Studies in the History of Ether Theories, 1740–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1981
- “Yes, but ... : Some Skeptical Reflections on Realism and Anti-realism”, Dialectica, 1989, 43:47–65
- “On Locke, ‘the Great Huygenius, and the Incomparable Mr. Newton’”, Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, ed. P. Bricker and R. Hughes, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1990.
- “‘From the Phenomena of Motions to the Forces of Nature’: Hypothesis or Deduction?”, Proceedings of the Biennial PSA Conference, 1990, vol. 2, 209–222
- “Eudoxos and Dedekind: on the Ancient Greek Theory of Ratios and Its Relation to Modern Mathematics”, Synthese, 1990, 84:163–211.
- “On Relativity Theory and Openness of the Future”, Philosophy of Science, 1991, 58:147–167.
- “Was Carnap Entirely Wrong, After All?”, Synthese, 1992, 93:275–295.
- “Some Reflections on the Structure of Our Knowledge in Physics”, in eds. Prawitz, D. and B. Skyrms and D. Westerståhl, Logic, Metholodogy and Philosophy of Science, New York: Elsevier Science B.V., 1994, 633–655. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science
- “The Enterprise of Understanding and the Enterprise of Knowledge”, Synthese, 2004, 140:135–176
- “ “Definability,” “Conventionality,” and Simultaneity in Einstein-Minkowski Space-Time”, in W. Myrvold and J. Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Circle: Essays in Honor of Abner Shimony, Springer, 2009

Patrick Suppes

- Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science: Selected Papers from 1951 to 1969 (Springer, 1969)
- Models and Methods in the Philosophy OF Science: Selected Essays (Springer, 1993)
- Representation and Invariance of Scientific Structures (CSLI Publications: Stanford, 2002)

Alfred Tarski

- Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics: Papers from 1923 to 1938 (Clarendon Press, 1956)

Roberto Torretti

- Relativity and Geometry (Pergamon Press, 1983)
- Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincaré (D. Reidel, 1984)

Steve Martin

- “Philosophy, Religion and College” (from his album A Wild and Crazy Guy)

Physics Texts

Edited Physics Collections

James Anderson

Élie Cartan

Brandon Carter

Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat

Paul and Tatiana Ehrenfest

Albert Einstein

Arthur Eddington

George Ellis

Enrico Fermi

Richard Feynman

Josiah Willard Gibbs

Robert Geroch

Steven Hawking

Hermann Helmholtz

Heinrich Hertz

Edwin T. Jaynes

David Malament

James Clerk Maxwell

Isaac Newton

Roger Penrose

Max Planck

Jules Henri Poincaré

Eric Poisson

Erwin Schrödinger

A. Sommerfeld

J. L. Synge

Clifford Truesdell

Robert Wald

H. Weyl

J. Wheeler

Edited Physics Collections

- L. Blanchet, A. Spallici, B. Whiting (eds.), 2011, Mass and Motion in General Relativity
- M. Carmeli, S. Fickler and L. Witten (eds.), 1970, Relativity
- S. Deser and K. Ford (eds.), 1965, Lectures on General Relativity: Brandeis Summer Institute in Theoretical Physics, 1964, Volume 1, lectures by Bondi (“Some Special Solutions of the Einstein Equations”), Pirani (“Introduction to Gravitational Radiation Theory”), and Trautman (“Foundations and Current Problems of General Relativity”)
- B. DeWitt (ed.), 1973, Black Holes
- C. DeWitt and J. Wheeler (eds.), 1968, Battelle Rencontres
- J. Ehlers (ed.), 1967, Relativity Theory and Astrophysics: 1. Relativity and Cosmology
- F. Esposito and L. Witten (eds.), 1977, Asymptotic Structure of Space-Time
- S. Hawking and W. Israel (eds.), 1979, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey
- S. Hawking and W. Israel (eds.), 1987, 300 Years of Gravitation
- R. Sachs (ed.), 1971, General Relativity and Cosmology
- R. Wald (ed.), 1998, Black Holes and Relativistic Stars
- L. Witten (ed.), 1962, Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research

James Anderson

Élie Cartan

- On Manifolds with an Affine Connection and the Theory of General Relativity, trans. A. Magnon and A. Ashtekar, foreward by A. Trautman

Brandon Carter

Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat

Paul and Tatiana Ehrenfest

Albert Einstein

- “Geometry and Experience”, in his Sidelights on Relativity (no copyright)
- Ideas and Opinions

Arthur Eddington

- The Mathematical Theory of Relativity
- Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Theory of Relativity, Cambridge University Press, 1920

George Ellis

- Relativistic Cosmology, with R. Maartens and M. MacCallum, Cambridge University Press, 2012

Enrico Fermi

Richard Feynman

- Lectures on Physics, 1.12, “Characteristics of Force”
- Lectures on Physics, 1.52, “Symmetry in Physical Laws”
- The Character of Physical Law, MIT Press, 2001
- Feynman Lectures on Gravitation, Addison–Wesley, 1995

Josiah Willard Gibbs

- Elementary Principles of Statistical Mechanics, Developed with Especial Reference to the Rational Foundation of Thermodynamics

Robert Geroch

- Geroch's own page with his course lectures and notes
- General Relativity from A to B
- “On the Role of Math in Physics” (from chapter 1 of his book Mathematical Physics)
- “Mathematical Assertions” (unpublished remarks)
- “Computation—Quantum and Otherwise” (unpublished lecture notes)
- “Energy Extraction” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1973, 224:108–117
- “Geometrical Quantum Mechanics” (unpublished lecture notes)
- “Infinite-Dimensional Manifolds” (unpublished notes)
- “Definitions for Manifolds, Measures and Hilbert Spaces” (unpublished notes)
- “Measure Theory” (unpublished notes)
- “Path Integrals” (unpublished notes)
- “Special Topics in Particle Physics (Notes on Quantum Field Theory)” (unpublished lecture notes)
- “A Watched Pot Never Boils?” (unpublished paper on observation in quantum mechanics)

Steven Hawking

- The Large Scale Structure of Space-time (with G. Ellis)

Hermann Helmholtz

- “Preface” to Principles of Mechanics by H. Hertz (translated by D. Jones and T. Walley, no copyright)

Heinrich Hertz

- “Author's Preface” and “Introduction” to his Principles of Mechanics(translated by D. Jones and T. Walley, no copyright)

Edwin T. Jaynes

- “Information Theory and Statistical Mechanics”, Brandeis University Summer Institute Lectures in Theoretical Physics 1962
- “Foundations of Probability Theory and Statistical Mechanics”, Delaware Seminar in the Foundations of Physics 1967

David Malament

- Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory (uncorrected proofs for the book published in 2012 by University of Chicago Press) malament-lects-geom-st.pdf
- “Lecture Notes on Geometry and Spacetime” (lecture notes for a graduate course taught by Malament)

James Clerk Maxwell

- Matter and Motion, 1925 ed. No copyright.
- “The Clerk Maxwell Collection” (listing of Maxwell's personal library, donated to the Rayleigh Library at the Cavendish Laboraties)
- “Poems” (poems by Maxwell)
- “The Published Scientific Papers and Books of James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)” (a bibliography)
- The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, Volume I, from the Dover Publications: New York, 1965, 2 volumes bound as 1. A reprint of the original Cambridge University Press edition of 1890. No copyright.
- The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, Volume II, from the Dover Publications: New York, 1965, 2 volumes bound as 1. A reprint of the original Cambridge University Press edition of 1890. No copyright.
- Theory of Heat, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1904. With corrections by Lord Rayleigh. No copyright.

Isaac Newton

- “De Gravitatione et Æquipondio Fluidorum” (selected passages; translation and interpolated commentary by Howard Stein)
- “Author's Preface to the First Edition”, from his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, the translation by A. Motte of the third edition (1726), originally produced in 1729.
- “Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy”, from his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, the translation by A. Motte of the third edition (1726), originally produced in 1729.
- Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, translated by I. Cohen and A. Whitman (Author's Preface; Definitions and Scholium; Axioms, or the Laws of Motion and Scholium; Rules for the Study of Natural Philosophy; General Scholium)
- Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light, 1952 Dover reprint of the 1931 volume of G.~Bell and Sons, Ltd., based on the fourth edition of William Innys, London, 1730; Foreward by Einstein, Introduction by E. Whittaker, Preface by I. B. Cohen

Roger Penrose

- Techniques of Differential Topological in General Relativity
- Spinors and Spacetime: Volume 1, Two-Spinor Calculus and Relativistic Fields

Max Planck

- A Treatise on Thermodynamics (the Dover reprint of the third English edition of 1926, translated by A.~Ogg from the 7th German edition of 1922)
- Eight Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Delivered at Columbia University in 1909, Columbia University Press, 1915
- Where Is Science Going?, with a prologue by Einstein (Norton & Co., 1932)

Jules Henri Poincaré

- Science and Hypothesis (beautiful PDF produced by The Gutenberg Project from the 1905 edition from Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd.; no copyright)
- The Foundations of Science: Science and Hypothesis, The Value of Science Science and Methods (The Gutenberg Project, no copyright)

Eric Poisson

- A Relativist's Toolkit: The Mathematics of Black-Hole Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Erwin Schrödinger

A. Sommerfeld

- Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. 5

J. L. Synge

Clifford Truesdell

- The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics: 1822–1854, Springer-Verlag, 1980

Robert Wald

- General Relativity, University of Chicago Press, 1984
- Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime and Black Hole Thermodynamics, University of Chicago Press, 1994

H. Weyl

- Space-Time-Matter
- Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science, revised and augmented English version based on the trans. by O. Helmer, Princeton University Press, 1949
- Mind and Nature: Selected Writings on Philosophy, Mathematics, and Physics, trans. and ed. P. Pesic, Princeton University Press, 2009
- Levels of Infinity: Selected Writings on Mathematics and Philosophy, trans. and ed. P. Pesic, Dover Publications, Inc., 2012

J. Wheeler

- Gravitation (with C. Misner and K. Thorne)

Math Texts

Andrew Gleason

Hermann Helmholtz

Donald Knuth

Bernhard Riemann

Michael Spivak

Andrew Gleason

- Fundamentals of Abstract Analysis, Addison-Wesley, 1966

Hermann Helmholtz

- “On the Origin and Significance of the Geometrical Axioms” (Translated by Howard Stein, from Populäre Wissenshaftliche Vorträge von H. Helmholtz, Braunschweig, 1876, Heft 3, pp. 23–51.)

Donald Knuth

Bernhard Riemann

- “On the Hypotheses, Which Lie at the Basis of Geometry” (A translated of “Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen” by Howard Stein. I devised a short glossary for the more obscure, archaic and technical terms Riemann uses in this paper, to help the reader.)

Michael Spivak

- Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus, Addison-Wesley, 1965
- Introduction to Differential Geometry, Volume 1
- Introduction to Differential Geometry, Volume 2
- Introduction to Differential Geometry, Volume 3
- Introduction to Differential Geometry, Volume 4
- Introduction to Differential Geometry, Volume 5

Literature

H. W. Fowler

Mark Twain

H. W. Fowler

- Fowler's Modern English Usage, 2nd edition (revised by Sir E. Gowers)

Mark Twain

© Erik Curiel 2010 ☠